All Things AAFS!

For juicy tidbits of information, topics and insights into a student's world that involves archaeological, anthropological and forensic sciences!

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allthingsaafs:

This is the 2nd blog post in this Quick Tips series on estimating the biological sex of human skeletal remains. If you haven’t read the first post on the basics of sexing skeletal remains, click here to start at the beginning.

Quick Tips: How To Estimate The Biological Sex Of A Human Skeleton – Skull Method.

One of the most widely used methods of sexing skeletal remains is by examining the skull. The skull has five different features that are observed and scored.  The five features are the:

  • Nuchal crest.
  • Mastoid process.
  • Supraorbital Margin.
  • Supraorbital Ridge.
  • Mental Eminence.

Each of these markers is given a numerical score from 1 to 5 relating to the level of expression, with 1 being minimal expression and 5 being maximal expression. Each feature should be scored independently, and without influence from the other identifying features. It has been generally found that female skulls are more likely to have a lower level of expression in all features, whereas male skulls are more likely to have higher levels of expression.

To observe the nuchal crest, one should view the skull from its lateral profile and feel for thesmoothness (1-minimal expression) or ruggedness (5-maximal expression) of the occipital surface, and compare it with the scoring system of that feature (Figure 2).

Click here to read the rest of the post and learn how to observe the 4 other markers on All Things AAFS!

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allthingsaafs:

Fracture Types: A) Transverse, B) Oblique, C) Spiral, D) Comminuted, E) Greenstick, and F) Impacted fracture.
Quick Tips: Fracture Types – The Basics.

In this Quick Tips post I will show you some ways to identify and deduce common fracture types and their key characteristics. The definition of a fracture is a break in the continuity of a bone. There are three major causes of fractures: acute injury (an accident); underlying disease which then weakens the bone making it susceptible to fractures; and repeated stress (as seen in athletes).
All fracture types can be placed in two categories; open and closed. An open fracture, also known as a compound fracture, is where the bone breaks through the skin causing an open wound. It is called an open fracture as there is an open connection between the fracture site and skin. A closed fracture is where the bone has no connection between the outer skin surface and the fractured bone itself; it does not cause an open wound. A closed fracture is classed as a ‘simple fracture’.

Click here to read and learn the six ‘basic’ fracture types and their characteristics, on All Things AAFS!
Click here to read the previous Quick Tip post on “How can you tell if a skeletal fracture is ante, peri or post-mortem?”.

allthingsaafs:

Fracture Types: A) Transverse, B) Oblique, C) Spiral, D) Comminuted, E) Greenstick, and F) Impacted fracture.

Quick Tips: Fracture Types – The Basics.

In this Quick Tips post I will show you some ways to identify and deduce common fracture types and their key characteristics. The definition of a fracture is a break in the continuity of a bone. There are three major causes of fractures: acute injury (an accident); underlying disease which then weakens the bone making it susceptible to fractures; and repeated stress (as seen in athletes).

All fracture types can be placed in two categories; open and closed. An open fracture, also known as a compound fracture, is where the bone breaks through the skin causing an open wound. It is called an open fracture as there is an open connection between the fracture site and skin. A closed fracture is where the bone has no connection between the outer skin surface and the fractured bone itself; it does not cause an open wound. A closed fracture is classed as a ‘simple fracture’.

Click here to read and learn the six ‘basic’ fracture types and their characteristics, on All Things AAFS!

Click here to read the previous Quick Tip post on “How can you tell if a skeletal fracture is ante, peri or post-mortem?”.

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allthingsaafs:

We’ve just added more unique, hand-crafted archaeology/anthropology tool rolls, which you can visit here: https://www.etsy.com/uk/shop/AllThingsAAFS.

We ship our tool rolls worldwide, and are all £24!! Above are a few of our brand new designs!

If you buy one of our Small Tool kits, it will contain:

12x Stainless Steel Small Finds Archaeology Tools!
4x Tweezers - to allow you to delicately handle finds!
1x Sharpie permanent marker pen - for labelling tool find trays or bags!
1x Mechanical Pencil - to help you write when the weather is gloomy!
1x HB Pencil - to allow you to sketch your finds, and with extra room to add your own personal tools.

If you buy our Delicate Tool kit, it contains:

6x Plastic, lightweight flexible excavation tools – these are perfect for excavating fragile and delicate materials like skeletal remains, as they provide precise digging without the pressure of metal tools!
5x Brushes - to help you clean your finds.

4x Tweezers - to allow you to delicately handle your finds!
1x Sharpie permanent marker pen - for labelling tool find trays or bags!
1x Mechanical Pencil - to help you write when the weather is gloomy!
1x HB Pencil - to allow you to sketch your finds, and with extra room to add your own personal tools.

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New Student to Archaeology or Anthropology?

If you’re wondering what the best literature and textbooks are for these subjects we have a page full of our suggestions that we’ve gathered for you!

Here are a few of the most useful textbooks to have:

  • Archaeology: Theories, Methods and Practice (UK/Europe Link)
    Archaeology Essentials: Theories, Methods, and Practice (Second Edition) (US/Worldwide Link)
    by Colin Renfrew and Paul Bahn. Rating: *****
    “This book is highly acclaimed and is the ultimate archaeology bible for students, or people new to archaeology and want to get stuck right in. After being recommended it by two of my University lecturers, I took it out from the library to use for my assignments so many times I ended up buying it.”

  • The Human Bone Manual (UK/Europe)
    The Human Bone Manual (US/Worldwide Link)
    by Tim D. White and Pieter A. Folkens. Rating: *****
    THIS IS A MUST HAVE – If you are studying anything to do with human remains and anthropology!!
    “I cannot stress how important this book is to have. It is the ‘go-to’ guide on anything relating to bones and skeletal remains. It’s illustrated as well, so if your course isn’t too hands on – you will still understand what the book is talking about. It’s a must for any budding anthropologist, and one of my favourite books to read. It’s really small and concise so its pretty much a ‘pocket book’.”

Click here for a full list of anthropological and archaeological reading materials.

Also check out our “Quick Tip” posts where we breakdown subjects into easier, bite-sized chunks to help you learn about the practical sides of anthropology and archaeology.

We’ve currently covered these topics:

We’ve just added more unique, hand-crafted archaeology/anthropology tool rolls, which you can visit here: https://www.etsy.com/uk/shop/AllThingsAAFS.

We ship our tool rolls worldwide, and are all £24!! Above are a few of our brand new designs!

If you buy one of our Small Tool kits, it will contain:

12x Stainless Steel Small Finds Archaeology Tools!
4x Tweezers - to allow you to delicately handle finds!
1x Sharpie permanent marker pen - for labelling tool find trays or bags!
1x Mechanical Pencil - to help you write when the weather is gloomy!
1x HB Pencil - to allow you to sketch your finds, and with extra room to add your own personal tools.

If you buy our Delicate Tool kit, it contains:

6x Plastic, lightweight flexible excavation tools – these are perfect for excavating fragile and delicate materials like skeletal remains, as they provide precise digging without the pressure of metal tools!
5x Brushes - to help you clean your finds.

4x Tweezers - to allow you to delicately handle your finds!
1x Sharpie permanent marker pen - for labelling tool find trays or bags!
1x Mechanical Pencil - to help you write when the weather is gloomy!
1x HB Pencil - to allow you to sketch your finds, and with extra room to add your own personal tools.

Filed under archaeology anthropology paleontology forensic students resources anthropology students archaeology students forensic science students literature useful anthropology useful archaeology archaeology essentials reference textbooks anthropology textbooks archaeology textbooks how to science all things aafs allthingsaafs osteology palaeoanthropology palaeontology dinosaurs aztec roman mayan excavation archaeology fieldwork

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allthingsaafs:

We’ve just added more unique, hand-crafted archaeology/anthropology tool rolls, which you can visit here: https://www.etsy.com/uk/shop/AllThingsAAFS.

We ship our tool rolls worldwide, and are all £24!! Above are a few of our brand new designs!

If you buy one of our Small Tool kits, it will contain:

12x Stainless Steel Small Finds Archaeology Tools!
4x Tweezers - to allow you to delicately handle finds!
1x Sharpie permanent marker pen - for labelling tool find trays or bags!
1x Mechanical Pencil - to help you write when the weather is gloomy!
1x HB Pencil - to allow you to sketch your finds, and with extra room to add your own personal tools.

If you buy our Delicate Tool kit, it contains:

6x Plastic, lightweight flexible excavation tools – these are perfect for excavating fragile and delicate materials like skeletal remains, as they provide precise digging without the pressure of metal tools!
5x Brushes - to help you clean your finds.

4x Tweezers - to allow you to delicately handle your finds!
1x Sharpie permanent marker pen - for labelling tool find trays or bags!
1x Mechanical Pencil - to help you write when the weather is gloomy!
1x HB Pencil - to allow you to sketch your finds, and with extra room to add your own personal tools.

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allthingsaafs:

Useful Literature: Archaeology.

If you’re new to the realm of archaeological sciences, or are a student needing sturdy and reliable references, or wondering “what archaeology textbooks to buy?”
In this post you can find links to a selection of the best textbooks – most of these have been suggested by university Professors. To view the full list of suggested reading, click here.

Archaeology: Theories, Methods and Practice (UK/Europe Link)Archaeology Essentials: Theories, Methods, and Practice (Second Edition)(US/Worldwide Link)by Colin Renfrew and Paul Bahn. Rating: *****“This book is highly acclaimed and is the ultimate archaeology bible for students, or people new to archaeology and want to get stuck right in. After being recommended it by two of my University lecturers, I took it out from the library to use for my assignments so many times I ended up buying it.”
Archaeology in Practice: A Student Guide to Archaeological Analyses (UK/Europe Link)Archaeology in Practice: A Student Guide to Archaeological Analyses (US/Worldwide Link)by Jane Balme and Alistair Paterson. Rating: ****“This is THE book for how to apply archaeological methods in real life contexts. It is easy to follow, so perfect for first year students as it uses numerous case studies and illustrations to show you how to apply it in practice. I used this during my studies to wrap my head around how methods can be applied – which helped when methods were only briefly discussed in theory during my lectures.”
Human Remains in Archaeology: A Handbook (CBA Practical Handbook) (UK/Europe Link) On sale atm!Human Remains in Archaeology: a Handbook (Cba Practical Handbook) (US/Worldwide Link)by Charlotte Roberts. Rating: ****“This book is great for students to grasp and understand the importance of human remains in archaeological contexts. The book has a whole section dedicated to the numerous methods that are used . It is also a book from the CBA Practical Handbook series, so it has section on the laws/legal information which is really useful for Medico-Legal!This author also wrote The Archaeology of Disease (UK) The Archaeology of Disease (Worldwide), which I think is an anthropology essential!”
Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (Oxford Paperback Reference) (UK/Europe Link)Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (Oxford Paperback Reference) (US/Worldwide Link)by Timothy Darvill. Rating: *****“Does exactly as the title says – concise meanings making it handy to have for your written assignments or dissertations, especially when you’re having trouble with interpretations of archaeological features! It is also useful to decipher what is being said within published papers by breaking down the archaeological jargon into layman terms.”

If you’re an anthropology student, you can find a list of suggested readings here.

allthingsaafs:

Useful Literature: Archaeology.

If you’re new to the realm of archaeological sciences, or are a student needing sturdy and reliable references, or wondering “what archaeology textbooks to buy?”

In this post you can find links to a selection of the best textbooks – most of these have been suggested by university Professors. To view the full list of suggested reading, click here.

If you’re an anthropology student, you can find a list of suggested readings here.

(via allthingsaafs)

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allthingsaafs:

We’ve just added more unique, hand-crafted archaeology/anthropology tool rolls, which you can visit here: https://www.etsy.com/uk/shop/AllThingsAAFS.

We ship our tool rolls worldwide, and are all £24!! Above are a few of our brand new designs!

If you buy one of our Small Tool kits, it will contain:

12x Stainless Steel Small Finds Archaeology Tools!
4x Tweezers - to allow you to delicately handle finds!
1x Sharpie permanent marker pen - for labelling tool find trays or bags!
1x Mechanical Pencil - to help you write when the weather is gloomy!
1x HB Pencil - to allow you to sketch your finds, and with extra room to add your own personal tools.

If you buy our Delicate Tool kit, it contains:

6x Plastic, lightweight flexible excavation tools – these are perfect for excavating fragile and delicate materials like skeletal remains, as they provide precise digging without the pressure of metal tools!
5x Brushes - to help you clean your finds.

4x Tweezers - to allow you to delicately handle your finds!
1x Sharpie permanent marker pen - for labelling tool find trays or bags!
1x Mechanical Pencil - to help you write when the weather is gloomy!
1x HB Pencil - to allow you to sketch your finds, and with extra room to add your own personal tools.

(via allthingsaafs)

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allthingsaafs:

Figure 1) Diagram showing the seventeen cranial suture sites.

Figure 2) Table demonstrating Meindl and Lovejoy (1985)’s composite scores of the sutures on the vault and lateral-anterior, respectively, in relation to mean chronological age.

Quick Tips: How To Estimate The Chronological Age Of A Human Skeleton – Cranial Suture Closure Method.

This is the 4th blog post in this Quick Tips series on chronologically dating human skeletal remains, if you haven’t read the first post click here to start at the beginning. In my previous blog post I introduced the method of chronologically dating sub-adults using dentition, you can find out this information by clicking here.

Another method of chronologically aging human skeletal remains is by observing the cranial suture closure sites. The human skull has seventeen unique cranial fusion sites (Figure 1), that are positioned on the vault, the lateral-anterior sites, and the maxillary suture

Click here to read the full blog post and learn the 17 suture points on All Things AAFS!

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allthingsaafs:

Figure 1:  The five Roman era graves, dated between 350AD and 380AD, which were discovered within a square enclosure.

On Location: Durotriges Project, 2014 – Roman Burials.

Today’s On Location is featuring the Durotriges Project, a excavation in Winterborne Kingston,  Dorset, UK, which is held by Bournemouth University.
This archaeological site shows significant Iron Age and Roman settlement, particularly with the Durotriges tribe and Roman interaction. The Durotriges Project has been a yearly excavation, starting in 2009, which has uncovered many archaeological features. Over the past five years the site has unearthed an Iron Age banjo enclosure, two Roman villas, an Iron Age burial site and numerous storage pits.

During this years excavation they were able to uncover a Bronze Age food preparation area surrounded by storage pits, and a flint mine – which was used to source the materials needed to construct the settlement’s buildings. Within the flint mine, students discovered the skeletal remains of an 18 month old juvenile.
Click here to read the full post on All Things AAFS!

allthingsaafs:

Figure 1:  The five Roman era graves, dated between 350AD and 380AD, which were discovered within a square enclosure.

On Location: Durotriges Project, 2014 – Roman Burials.

Today’s On Location is featuring the Durotriges Project, a excavation in Winterborne Kingston,  Dorset, UK, which is held by Bournemouth University.

This archaeological site shows significant Iron Age and Roman settlement, particularly with the Durotriges tribe and Roman interaction. The Durotriges Project has been a yearly excavation, starting in 2009, which has uncovered many archaeological features. Over the past five years the site has unearthed an Iron Age banjo enclosure, two Roman villas, an Iron Age burial site and numerous storage pits.

During this years excavation they were able to uncover a Bronze Age food preparation area surrounded by storage pits, and a flint mine – which was used to source the materials needed to construct the settlement’s buildings. Within the flint mine, students discovered the skeletal remains of an 18 month old juvenile.

Click here to read the full post on All Things AAFS!

(via allthingsaafs)

913 notes

Figure 1: A) Transverse, B) Oblique, C) Spiral, D) Comminuted, E) Greenstick, and F) Impacted fracture.

Figure 2: A) Butterfly, B) Longitudinal, C) Segmented, D) Hairline, and E) Avulsion.

Figure 3: A) Boxer’s fracture, B) Bennett’s fractures, C) Parry’s or Monteggia’s fracture, D) Colles’ fractures, and E) Smith’s fractures.

Figure 4: Skull with signs of post-mortem fractures. This photo is from a practical lab session.

Quick Tips: Fracture Types.

Here is a list of all my Quick Tips topics to date on fracture types, click the relevant title to learn about the fractures within the figure. Below each title is a preview of the blog content, so if you’re interested click the link to learn more. This skill is very important when assessing human remains, whether they are in an archaeological, anthropological or forensic context.

Quick Tips: Fracture Types – The Basics (Figure 1)

In this Quick Tips post I will show you some ways to identify and deduce common fracture types and their key characteristics. The definition of a fracture is a break in the continuity of a bone. There are three major causes of fractures: acute injury (an accident); underlying disease which then weakens the bone making it susceptible to fractures; and repeated stress (as seen in athletes). All fracture types can be placed in two categories; open and closed.

Quick Tips: Fracture Types – The Basics Pt 2 (Figure 2)

A) Butterfly Fracture: Butterfly fractures usually affect long bones and can be caused by car accidents or by being knocked side on.

B) Longitudinal Fracture: As a transverse fracture is a bone along the horizontal axis, a longitudinal fracture is along the vertical axis.

Quick Tips: Named Fractures – Part One: Hand & Forearms (Figure 3)

This blog post will highlight some of the common ‘named’ fractures you will often find in archaeological and anthropological settings. It is important to know their characteristics and common causes to help establish what happened – whether the fracture was received by defensive or offensive action, or purely accidental. This blog post will examine the first five common fractures associated with the hand and forearm bones.

Quick Tips: How can you tell if a skeletal fracture is ante, peri or post-mortem? (Figure 4)

There is a relatively easy way to see whether a fracture to a skeleton is ante, peri or even post mortem. It is essential to detail and deduce which category a fracture falls into, as this is very important to see whether the fracture had played a part in the person’s death.

To first classify a fracture we need to understand what the different categories mean, some of you will already know these terminology but here’s a quick reminder:

  • If a fracture is ante-mortem, it means that the fracture was made before death of the persons.
  • With peri-mortem fractures, it means that the fracture was received at or near the time of death of the persons – so could have been the fatal strike.
  • Post-mortem fractures are fractures that have been received after death, so during the time from death to the time of recovery. These fractures are usually from excavation processes, dismemberment, or even natural processes (soil, animal and plant activity).

Read more anthropology/archaeology quick tips from All Things AAFS! by clicking here!

 

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allthingsaafs:

Useful Literature: Archaeology.

If you’re new to the realm of archaeological sciences, or are a student needing sturdy and reliable references, or wondering “what archaeology textbooks to buy?”
In this post you can find links to a selection of the best textbooks – most of these have been suggested by university Professors. To view the full list of suggested reading, click here.

Archaeology: Theories, Methods and Practice (UK/Europe Link)Archaeology Essentials: Theories, Methods, and Practice (Second Edition)(US/Worldwide Link)by Colin Renfrew and Paul Bahn. Rating: *****“This book is highly acclaimed and is the ultimate archaeology bible for students, or people new to archaeology and want to get stuck right in. After being recommended it by two of my University lecturers, I took it out from the library to use for my assignments so many times I ended up buying it.”
Archaeology in Practice: A Student Guide to Archaeological Analyses (UK/Europe Link)Archaeology in Practice: A Student Guide to Archaeological Analyses (US/Worldwide Link)by Jane Balme and Alistair Paterson. Rating: ****“This is THE book for how to apply archaeological methods in real life contexts. It is easy to follow, so perfect for first year students as it uses numerous case studies and illustrations to show you how to apply it in practice. I used this during my studies to wrap my head around how methods can be applied – which helped when methods were only briefly discussed in theory during my lectures.”
Human Remains in Archaeology: A Handbook (CBA Practical Handbook) (UK/Europe Link) On sale atm!Human Remains in Archaeology: a Handbook (Cba Practical Handbook) (US/Worldwide Link)by Charlotte Roberts. Rating: ****“This book is great for students to grasp and understand the importance of human remains in archaeological contexts. The book has a whole section dedicated to the numerous methods that are used . It is also a book from the CBA Practical Handbook series, so it has section on the laws/legal information which is really useful for Medico-Legal!This author also wrote The Archaeology of Disease (UK) The Archaeology of Disease (Worldwide), which I think is an anthropology essential!”
Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (Oxford Paperback Reference) (UK/Europe Link)Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (Oxford Paperback Reference) (US/Worldwide Link)by Timothy Darvill. Rating: *****“Does exactly as the title says – concise meanings making it handy to have for your written assignments or dissertations, especially when you’re having trouble with interpretations of archaeological features! It is also useful to decipher what is being said within published papers by breaking down the archaeological jargon into layman terms.”

If you’re an anthropology student, you can find a list of suggested readings here.

allthingsaafs:

Useful Literature: Archaeology.

If you’re new to the realm of archaeological sciences, or are a student needing sturdy and reliable references, or wondering “what archaeology textbooks to buy?”

In this post you can find links to a selection of the best textbooks – most of these have been suggested by university Professors. To view the full list of suggested reading, click here.

If you’re an anthropology student, you can find a list of suggested readings here.

22 notes

allthingsaafs:

We’ve just added more unique, hand-crafted archaeology/anthropology tool rolls, which you can visit here: https://www.etsy.com/uk/shop/AllThingsAAFS.

We ship our tool rolls worldwide, and are all £24!! Above are a few of our brand new designs!

If you buy one of our Small Tool kits, it will contain:

12x Stainless Steel Small Finds Archaeology Tools!
4x Tweezers - to allow you to delicately handle finds!
1x Sharpie permanent marker pen - for labelling tool find trays or bags!
1x Mechanical Pencil - to help you write when the weather is gloomy!
1x HB Pencil - to allow you to sketch your finds, and with extra room to add your own personal tools.

If you buy our Delicate Tool kit, it contains:

6x Plastic, lightweight flexible excavation tools – these are perfect for excavating fragile and delicate materials like skeletal remains, as they provide precise digging without the pressure of metal tools!
5x Brushes - to help you clean your finds.

4x Tweezers - to allow you to delicately handle your finds!
1x Sharpie permanent marker pen - for labelling tool find trays or bags!
1x Mechanical Pencil - to help you write when the weather is gloomy!
1x HB Pencil - to allow you to sketch your finds, and with extra room to add your own personal tools.

(via allthingsaafs)

33 notes

allthingsaafs:


Within anthropological and archaeological sciences, ‘sex’ refers to the biological sex of an individual, based on the chromosomal difference of XX being female, and XY being male. Whereas ‘gender’ refers to the socio-cultural differences placed on the biological differences. In recent times, the words ‘gender’ and sex’ have been used incorrectly as interchangeable words within this discipline.  
Therefore, it is important to remember that the word ‘gender’ refers an aspect of a person’s social identity, whereas ‘sex’ refers to the person’s biological identity.


Quick Tips: How To Estimate The Biological Sex Of A Human Skeleton – The Basics.

Sexual dimorphism as seen in the human skeleton is determined by the hormones that are produced by the body. There are numerous markers on a human skeleton which can provide archaeologists and anthropologists with an estimate sex of the deceased. The areas of the skeletal remains that are studied are the:  
Skull.
Dentition.
Pelvic dimorphism and Parturition scars.
DNA.
The two most commonly used skeletal markers that are observed by osteologists are the skull and pelvic bone, as these show the most extreme differences….

Click here to read the full post on All Things AAFS! To read more ‘Quick Tips’ click here.

allthingsaafs:

Within anthropological and archaeological sciences, ‘sex’ refers to the biological sex of an individual, based on the chromosomal difference of XX being female, and XY being male. Whereas ‘gender’ refers to the socio-cultural differences placed on the biological differences. In recent times, the words ‘gender’ and sex’ have been used incorrectly as interchangeable words within this discipline.  

Therefore, it is important to remember that the word ‘gender’ refers an aspect of a person’s social identity, whereas ‘sex’ refers to the person’s biological identity.

Quick Tips: How To Estimate The Biological Sex Of A Human Skeleton – The Basics.

Sexual dimorphism as seen in the human skeleton is determined by the hormones that are produced by the body. There are numerous markers on a human skeleton which can provide archaeologists and anthropologists with an estimate sex of the deceased. The areas of the skeletal remains that are studied are the:  

  • Skull.
  • Dentition.
  • Pelvic dimorphism and Parturition scars.
  • DNA.

The two most commonly used skeletal markers that are observed by osteologists are the skull and pelvic bone, as these show the most extreme differences….

Click here to read the full post on All Things AAFS! To read more ‘Quick Tips’ click here.

156 notes

This is the 2nd blog post in this Quick Tips series on estimating the biological sex of human skeletal remains. If you haven’t read the first post on the basics of sexing skeletal remains, click here to start at the beginning.

Quick Tips: How To Estimate The Biological Sex Of A Human Skeleton – Skull Method.

One of the most widely used methods of sexing skeletal remains is by examining the skull. The skull has five different features that are observed and scored.  The five features are the:

  • Nuchal crest.
  • Mastoid process.
  • Supraorbital Margin.
  • Supraorbital Ridge.
  • Mental Eminence.

Each of these markers is given a numerical score from 1 to 5 relating to the level of expression, with 1 being minimal expression and 5 being maximal expression. Each feature should be scored independently, and without influence from the other identifying features. It has been generally found that female skulls are more likely to have a lower level of expression in all features, whereas male skulls are more likely to have higher levels of expression.

To observe the nuchal crest, one should view the skull from its lateral profile and feel for thesmoothness (1-minimal expression) or ruggedness (5-maximal expression) of the occipital surface, and compare it with the scoring system of that feature (Figure 2).

Click here to read the rest of the post and learn how to observe the 4 other markers on All Things AAFS!

Filed under anthropology osteology archaeology sexing skeletal remains bioarchaeology forensic anthropology forensic science bones Bones skeletons skulls skull human remains bodies student reference quick tips anthropology studies